The Story of Calasanz Student Kevin McIntyre: by Calasanz

Calasanz student Kevin McIntyre, an ex-marine, would be placed with others of a similar background such as Chris Mottola.  These are two of Calasanz’ favorite students, as military and law enforcement personnel often are.  The people in these fields especially appreciate and understand the simplicity of the Calasanz system and its effectiveness on the street.  Police officers can use it and often, they need it. 

Kevin Mcantyre with just three months of training stepped into the ring with a Martin Vizi.  At that time Martin was not just beating people, he was nearly killing them.  We let Kevin get into the ring with him.  Kevin did not end up defeating Martin who was much more experienced and trained, but Kevin did leave Martin hurting, something few were capable of doing.

At the time kickboxing schools were big, Kevin had been to several and they were not capable of handling him.  He was just too much.  They all sent him to Calasanz knowing he was the real deal.  Calasanz was the only one capable of teaching Kevin in this era of martial arts.  With the UFC decades away and Mixed Martial Arts non-existent Calasanz was the first one in the area who would cross the threshold of strict adherence to a specific style which was the general mindset of the times.  This novel mindset broke the mold.  All other schools at the time subscribed to a specific style and trained with minds closed to the validity of other systems.  Kevin was sent to Calasanz by several kickboxing schools which, simply put, did not have the skill to train him.  Calasanz did.  Calasanz was, and still is to this day, the real deal.  His dedication and experience speak for themselves, with over 30 years of 22 hour days in his Martial Arts center, Calasanz is probably the most well balanced Martial artist around.

Calasanz Martial Arts and Fitness


507 Westport Ave, Norwalk CT 06851

The Calasanz System – Over 30 years of Excellence.

Click on this link for more great images of the Calasanz System!!!

Calasanz has spent over 30 years developing and perfecting his system of martial arts and fitness training. His unique teaching methods have helped countless men, women and children of all shapes, sizes and fitness levels enjoy the martial arts while getting fit. Here are four reasons why people like you have made Calasanz their number one destination for superior martial arts and fitness training.

One-on-One Training: Many martial arts clubs have a one-size-fits-all approach to teaching. Calasanz and his Certified Personal Trainers tailor a program just for you. Whether you’re a seasoned martial artist looking to improve your skills or a beginner looking for a great way to get fit, Calasanz and his team will work with you in creating a program that meets your fitness and martial art goals.

Science: Calasanz has spent a lifetime studying various martial arts and fitness trends. Over the years, he has dissected the best parts of each and combined them into what has become known as THE CALASANZ SYSTEM™-a unique and effective style that has wide range appeal. THE CALASANZ SYSTEM™ includes a physical conditioning program that improves your overall strength, flexibility and endurance.

Personal Choice: Calasanz has set out to disprove the misconception that martial arts are all about fighting. At Calasanz, you have a choice. Do you want to study martial arts to learn how to fight or for self-defense? Or do you want to pursue the arts for physical fitness or creative expression? You choose the path your training will take; Calasanz and his experienced trainers will get you there.

Infinite Possibilities: Staying interested in your exercise plan is very often the biggest challenge to reaching your fitness goals. You may have started a traditional martial arts or modern fitness program with the greatest enthusiasm only to get bored after having to endure a strict, dull, repetitious routine. Calasanz attributes much of his success to the variety of training possibilities available to his students. There is so much to do and so much to learn in this system that it is possible that you may never have the same workout twice. Here is a list of what THE CALASANZ SYSTEM™ has to offer:

Kickboxing, Wing Chun Kung Fu, American Boxing, Recreational Boxing, Chinese Boxing, Okinawa Goju Ryu Karate, Tai Chi Wing Chun, Street Survival & Self Defense, Wing Chun Ground Fighting, Aerobic Self Defense, Aerobic Isolation & Isometrics.

THE CALASANZ SYSTEM™ blends the best parts of these disciplines into a unified whole. You can try all of them or concentrate on one that is most appealing to you. Again, the choice is yours. There is so much in this system to choose from.

For instance, if you are interested in fitness, you may want to focus on Aerobic Isolation & Isometric. If you’d like to experience the boxer’s workout without having to get into a ring to fight, American Boxing may be for you. This program includes the exercises boxers use to burn calories and work different muscle groups. This is a popular program that helps you improve strength, flexibility, speed, and endurance by doing isometric exercises.

If you’re looking for practical self-defense, Street Survival may be for you. If you have a black belt in Karate, you may choose to round out your training with a softer style like Chinese Boxing or Wing Chun Kung Fu. If you’re looking to get into great physical shape, American Boxing may be for you.

Whether it’s THE CALASANZ SYSTEM™ as a whole or one of its components, you’ll never be bored! Let Calasanz and his Certified Personal Trainers create the program that’s right for you.

Calasanz Martial Arts and Fitness

507 Westport Ave, Norwalk CT06851


The Story of Calasanz Martial Arts and its Students

Calasanz came to the United States with a dream. That dream was realized after watching Bruce Lee in the movie “Enter the Dragon.”  Coming to America to make a movie became a goal for Calasanz. To promote his name, he chose over 60 students, most of which were the best street fighters alive. In the early 80s, the best street fighters were here in Norwalk, Connecticut and were citizens there as well. Calasanz devoted his life to the martial arts because he was born with a gift for it. Calasanz is not a regular black belt, he is more than that and he has proved that, not just in America, but as a 14 year old he went to take a class at a karate school and did not return to the school for three months. Why? He noticed too many mistakes but mostly he did not like the excessive brutality. In his mind, he said “There is no reason for this.” Going back to those Calasanz chose to promote, these students were courageous people, but also they were nice human beings. His students were not thugs; they were good people just like Calasanz.

Calasanz’s students that helped promote the system are Darryl Dash (Dash has a separate blog entry dedicated to him), who was the first black belt in the system, John Courtney (the man who really helped Calasanz to succeed and to get where he is today), but there are many others like Mike Gibson, Roger Mayers, Joe Perreira, Reggie Blackwell, Bill Sullivan, James Cassanell, Tyre Stwart, and Patrick Murphy. They will never be forgotten for their contributions. After 1987, when the business was up and running, many students came along that are great friends to Calasanz to this day. He considers them to be as close as family. Some of them deserve to be mentioned:  Robert Sapiro, Grace Luppino, Noram Bloom, Mario Contaccesi, Dee Hohn, Angel Llanos, Peter Valis, Chris Schrade, Gerry Manning, David Been, Dennis Grimaldi, Beth Arthur, Renee Fortin, Rod Kathabi, Dave Tartaglia, Jeff Prescott, Adam Colberg, Andrew Dominick, Luis Vega, Wesley Elizabeth Cullin, Bill Smith, Amy Gery, Tom Barcello, Dalila Willian, Jennifer Li, Rebecca Lyon, and of course Jacquie, Ron Lake, and hundreds of others.

Calasanz can only name so many people since there have been so many students over the years, some of them not only learned martial arts from him, but they helped out. Calasanz will always remember them, and he hopes they will always remember him. 

Calasanz came to the U.S., he wanted to promote his name. Two days after being here, his name became very popular in Bridgeport,Connecticut, especially at the University of Bridgeport; they could not believe what he was capable of doing. They asked him to put on an event for the freshman students, and soon after that, Calasanz was called upon to put on a show to be seen internationally on TV, called back then, Miss Venus USA. Being there really helped Calasanz to believe that he would become as good as or better than Bruce Lee.

Today, Calasanz is promoting his system that started in 2001, but also the school is also promoting Goju Ryu is his own way and dubbed it Calasanz Goju Ryu. Students or teachers from other styles of Goju Ryu will learn that this system is one of the most practical and realistic styles in the world today.

Calasanz Main style, Goju Ryu, Wing Chun, Cheng Chuang, Chinese boxing, Wing Chun Ground Fighting, General Kickboxing, MMA, Boxing, and Recreational Boxing are the roots of Calasanz Physical Arts.

This is just an idea of how far Calasanz is going with his martial arts system.

Calasanz Martial Arts and Fitness

507 Westport Ave,Norwalk CT06851


Calasanz and the Movie “Crossing the Line”: The Real Story (part 1)

When I first came to the United States I wanted to make my mark, I wanted to make a name for myself. Upon entering this country I had a goal in mind and I said it over and over again, “I came here to make a movie.” I heard what Sylvester Stallone, Arnold Schwarzenegger, and others had to go through in Hollywood with the politics involved in making it big and I did not want to follow that path. Even Bruce Lee went back to China because of those same politics. I kept going and would not falter on my decision, I wanted to make this movie in the U.S., not my home country of the Dominican Republic. Besides, I was only training in martial arts in the Dominican Republic part time. I was respected the first time I entered a martial arts school because of my natural ability and most of all I never slacked off.  You should also understand that I was a bit of a show off, if someone wanted to take a photo with me or asked me to do a full split, I did it immediately. All that showing off surprises me when I look back at it but I enjoyed showing off my skills and I do have a strong respect for martial arts and the instructors that had a hand in my training, especially Tameyoshi Sakemoto. I gained the trust and heart of Sakemoto because I possessed a gift to be a naturally gifted martial artist and I never abused that gift. Most of my fights were won without fighting, anyone that wanted to discuss martial arts with me understood my skills and knew that I required and deserved respect. There were some cases where I won a fight but I was fortunate that it was not too serious a fight because even though I was in good shape maybe my diet was not so good, maybe I worked too hard, put too much pressure on myself, or  made too many mistakes. When you are training hard and put that amount of pressure on yourself, regardless of how good a shape you are in, you would not be at your strongest with all that stress.

When I was eight years old when I taught my four year old brother how to hurt another kid who was bullying him. Between eight and 12 years old I knew how to take a big step forward and deliver the hardest kick to a cow that connected on its belly. There is an empty space that this animal has, I would love to know the name of that specific muscle, you hit it hard and they go down for at least one minute! I used to do that all the time, until one day I got caught, before the cow got up my father came and knew exactly what happened.

As I start training in martial arts, all my friends realized that I had a talent for what I was doing. They realized that no one on the farms in the Dominican Republic could trade kicking with me including his elders. I could easily win a fight just by kicking. Fighting was something came easy to me, I could look at a person and immediately knew when to strike, bite, punch, or kick them. I would take examples from today’s self defense techniques like MMA and Wing Chun Chi Sau and I would know where to strike just by looking at a person‘s body. I loved martial arts but my father begged me to get into boxing but I wanted more than just beating someone as a sport.

In 1975 my father and I went to see a movie made famous by Bruce Lee titled “Enter the Dragon.” I knew right away that I wanted to make a film. I started planning a trip to the U.S. I knew that I could make a business out of movies and acting. I did not want to just teach anymore, I knew that I wanted to be on the big screen. I wanted to do exactly what Bruce was did. At this point I already had a diploma and a job at a bank. I was able to convince my job to let me take a break to go to the U.S. to study. I applied for a visa and got accepted to the University of Bridgeport. When I got to the university I didn’t open a book, I was more focused on anything and everything to do with martial arts. This journey to get to the U.S. and make something of myself was realized when I opened my school. After opening the school, the idea I had long ago to make a movie would finally be reality.

To be continued….

Calasanz Martial Arts and Fitness

507 Westport Ave.Norwalk,CT06851


Calasanz and One-on-One Personal Training: by Calasanz

Over the last four years, I briefly departed from solely teaching on a one-on-one basis and ventured into small group classes. I began teaching martial arts in the early 80’s and built my reputation by training students one-on-one. I am pleased to say that I have decided to go back to my roots and concentrate on One-on-One Personal Training.

For 25 years, I’ve privately trained Wall Street executives, CEOs from major corporations, professional athletes like the Hartford Whalers ice hockey team, tennis star Ivan Lendl, best-selling authors Cathy Cash Spellman and Patty Davis Reagan, as well as Henry Kissinger’s personal bodyguard, and members of the military and law enforcement services.

I have decided to make this change because this is what I enjoy most and it is where I see the most progress with my students. Understanding that private martial arts training can be a costly, I have offered packages over the last 20 years packages for one, two, three, and even four years at a considerable savings for a long term commitment. A package avoids the high cost of private lessons, which can individually run from $95 to $380 per hour.

Many of you have been comfortable purchasing long term packages not only for the savings, but with the knowledge that I have been in business for over 30 years and am not some “fly by night” operation that is going to close its doors and leave you flat. 

I am currently offering long-term packages at great prices for those of you interested in embracing the martial arts as a hobby or as something special that you just do for yourself.

If you are interested in working toward the goal of earning your black belt for instance, you can commit to one year with a savings of more than half of what it would cost you in a month-to-month program. If you have already committed to a 3, 6, 9 month or one year program and would like to enroll long-term, you can still take advantage of the discounted program. Just see me and we can easily make an adjustment to your program.

For those of you who decide to take advantage of a package, I’d like to sit down with you and determine your ultimate goal. Would you like to:

Become proficient in Wing Chun?

Train like a fighter? 

Box? Spar? Point fight? Kickbox

Lose Weight? Get fit? Try our Physical Arts program?

Many of you want to learn self-defense and how to be more self-confident. This is and has been our specialty for over 30 years. I not only focus on the physical aspect of learning street defense, but also how not to “lose it” in a confrontation. Remember that Ted Bundy killed over 100 young women and was stopped by the one who fought back and got away! It was her description of this monster that finally put him behind bars. Bundy didn’t expect her to fight back…but she did and stunned him with the element of surprise.

My system is designed for the real world, for real people. It is practical enough to teach you the skills you need without brutal training regimes that serve you no purpose. For whatever your goals, I can work out a long-term package for you that will motivate you and save you money at the same time. Just make an appointment with me and we can work out the details. A good example to be aware of If you sign for a package to finish it on 6 months, if you decided to finish on 4 years still you don’t have to pay extra while you have lessons left, which is why a package is designed to be paid in advance, that is the purpose of the commitment and that is why you are saving more than half of the cost.

The Perfect Fit In Home Personal Training

Calasanz Martial Arts and Fitness

507 Westport Ave.Norwalk,CT06851




Calasanz Martial Arts and Fitness

507 Westport Ave.Norwalk, CT06851


Honoring Yourself: Women and Self Defense – by Calasanz

Women and girls live with the reality of violence on a daily basis, whether it’s date rape, domestic violence, sexual assault, sexual abuse and sexual harassment.  Women have to worry about going out at night, what they’re wearing, where they’re going and who they’re going with.  Many can’t even find refuge in their own homes.  One out of every four women is a victim of violent attacks and violence does not discriminate.  Violence knows no age, marital status, class, race, ethnicity or sexual orientation.  Regardless of the pervasiveness of violence against women, we have yet to see a war against it.

The war against women must begin in the heart and soul of the female population.  On a mental level, you must realize that you are worth defending and that you are your first line of defense.  On a physical level, you can make your body strong and learn the tools necessary to defend yourself. Why spend endless hours in a gym peddling a stationary bike to nowhere?  What utility is there in zoning out on an elliptical trainer?  Why not opt for a fitness regime that not only makes you strong and healthy, but also teaches you how to use your body as a weapon? 

While many fitness centers offer kickboxing, don’t be lulled into a false sense of security. The class you have been taking will do you no good in a real self defense situation.  Many of these courses are taught by fitness instructors who have no idea how to teach the martial arts, let alone apply them in a self defense situation.  We have seen a mass exodus from many of these so-called kickboxing classes with women (and men) suffering from a variety of injuries due to a lack of knowledge on the part of these instructors.  We have had to undo the bad habits learned in these classes that lead to poorly executed techniques, torn ligaments and even broken bones. 

Calasanz Martial Arts and Fitness

507 Westport Ave.Norwalk,CT06851


Teaching the Calasanz System – Part Three: A Lifetime of Lessons – Calasanz Extended Biography


Continued from: “Teaching the Calasanz System – Part Two: A Lifetime of Lessons – Calasanz Extended Biography”

Many of our messages have been directed at students who are very good fighters.  One of the messages I have to give over and over is that you don’t have to brutalize yourself in order to become a good fighter.  I don’t believe in this type of training.  I think that an effective fighter has to train “smarter.”  Sending a message or teaching a lesson to a student does not require that you physically injure them.  I’ve never had to physically injure a student in order to get my point across.  Why?  You train in the martial arts to be able to defend yourself.  Survival is not dependant on knowing thousands of techniques, but rather on your balance, grounding, power and most of all, heart.  Courage and intelligence will go farther in self-defense.  This is the key to surviving a life-threatening situation.  This is the philosophy behind many of my messages to my students.

I have taught many high rank students from other system, some of them have been very talented martial artists.  I enjoy teaching students from other systems because they bring their own special talents.  The one thing that does frustrate me sometimes is getting them to make the transition from their style to the Calasanz System.  I have designed this system to be practical.  With that in mind, I have done away with the tradition of teaching hundreds of techniques and forms.  Unfortunately, many students are more interested in quantity, not quality.  They haven’t even practiced a front kick to the point they can deliver effectively and they are asking, “What am I going to learn next?”  My philosophy is learning a few things, learn them well and make them as automatic as possible.  When you are confronted with a life-threatening situation, I promise that a lot of those fancy techniques will go right out the window.  In addition, an attacker on the streets is not going to engage in polite cooperation.  He’s not going to let you take your time while you respond to a wrist grab.

I have created a course called Street Survivor that teaches simple defensive techniques.  I can teach you some effective fighting skills within a relatively short period of time.  I once had a man training with me who was hired as a bodyguard for a well-known politician.  He was required to train as part of his job, so he was sent to me.  While he didn’t understand the difference between the different styles of martial arts, he understood the basic techniques I taught him, especially, heavy leg training and kicking.  I programmed him to counter attack with great ferocity.  One day, I put him to spar with a Thai boxer from Cambodia.  Regardless of the attack this Thai boxer delivered, this man was able to counter attack and hold his own.  I finally had to stop the fight because the Thai boxer had taken a couple of heavy kicks to the leg and I was afraid that any more kicks could lead to an injury.  The Thai boxer was humiliated and couldn’t eat for two days.  This sent a clear message to him.  He came to my school with the attitude that he knew it all and that he wasn’t going to learn anything from anyone.  I told him after this fight that he really needed to stop being so arrogant and try to learn something so that he could be as effective as the bodyguard.  I purposely gave two messages that day; one to the bodyguard and the other to the Thai boxer.  A message is more effective than giving a lecture to a student.

I sent a similar message to two other students who had come from another system.  They had a lot of techniques, so I decided to put them to spar with a student of mine who at first glance looked heavy and out of shape.  They were both hurt by this guy.  They couldn’t believe it!  This was done with training simple techniques and making counter attacks automatic.  This is what we create at Calasanz.

 To be continued…

Calasanz Martial Arts and Fitness

507 Westport Ave. Norwalk, CT 06851

Teaching the Calasanz System – Part Two: A Lifetime of Lessons – Calasanz Extended Biography

Continued from: “Teaching the Calasanz System – Part one: A Lifetime of Lessons – Calasanz Extended Biography”

Regardless of my students’ goals, I always like to give them some techniques they could use on the streets.  My private training in Wing Chun was the reason why I have incorporated this philosophy into my system.  I was not happy with the fact that some of my classmates had spent close to ten years training and had no street survival skills.  Many Wing Chun students spent all this time throwing punches without a purpose or sense of how they would use it in real life.  For instance, our Wing Chun classes emphasize bringing your elbow to the center, which helps your punch get very hard and learning how to get grounded.  I was fortunate enough when I began my Goju Ryu training that my teachers promoted self-defense skills and I have passed these skills down to my students.

Schools that promote black belts too quickly or don’t teach self-defense often trouble me. What troubles me more is the aerobic kickboxing craze.  Unfortunately, they give people a false sense of security in believing they’ll be able to defend themselves with a dance routine.  Understand that organizations that certify personal trainers often offer short-term courses or clinics that will teach you how to teach kickboxing.  This is an insult to all of us who have spent many years training in the martial arts and a scam on the public.  In some cases, students who have taken the aerobic kickboxing classes have been injured because of inadequate teacher supervision. While I train students who only want to learn kickboxing for recreation, I always incorporate some realistic movements so they can walk away with something useful.  No one leaves my school without at least some basic knowledge of street survival.

The Calasanz System is very simple.  Simplicity combined with skill allows us to take the best a student has to offer and improve on it.  An example is training women.  Because my style of fighting was always unsuited for tournaments, I found that I had to send “messages” of my skill to those who challenged me because I was not a competitor.  My favorite type of message was asking a female student to do kicking drills with an obnoxious male!  While women’s upper body strength cannot compare to that of a man, women do have naturally strong legs.  I take that ability in women and teach them how to capitalize on it.  Some of the best messages given here at the school were by women who embarrassed arrogant men!

Teaching a diverse population requires a lot of patience and natural skill.  You can train someone to be a teacher all you want.  If they don’t have it inside of them, they will never be effective.  In this business, you have to help not only the talented and coordinated, but also the uncoordinated, the slow learner and the student with a variety of challenges.  It is also a challenge to teach those who are very intelligent.  I had this one student who was very smart and had spent twelve years training in a well known martial arts school.  I was training him in kickboxing and trying to teach him how to protect his head when fighting at close range.  He told me “Calasanz, all I have to do is pick up my hands.  This would cause his opponent to look up, and then I could kick him.”  This guy with twelve years of experience just demonstrated the skill of a white belt.  I recognized was why his instructor had a hard time with him.  This guy thought he knew it all and didn’t need help or correction from anyone.

To be continued…

Calasanz Martial Arts and Fitness

507 Westport Ave. Norwalk, CT 06851

The Eyes Have It!! Eye Contact and the Martial Artist: by Calasanz

In The Karate Kid, Mr. Miyagi admonishes Daniel-san for not looking him in the eyes.  In Enter the Dragon, Bruce Lee points to the moon and tells his student not to concentrate on the finger or he will lose all the heavenly glory.  Some martial artists, however, spend a lot of time working on their basics, polishing their forms, but little or no time developing proper eye contact and focus.  Why are the eyes important in martial arts training? 

The eyes are a declaration of your fighting spirit.  What kind of self-confidence do you exude if you can’t look your attacker in the eye?  Is your sparring opponent going to take you seriously? Are you looking away? Are you looking down?  Look him right in the eye at the start.  This type of body language says you mean business! This is particularly important in self-defense situations on the street.  The eyes can be weak or hold the intimidation factor you will need to defend yourself.   

The eyes show respect and gratitude.  When bowing to our opponents, we maintain eye contact as a courtesy.  When we shake hands before and after sparring or working on self-defense, we thank our partners for their participation in our growth as martial artists.  That technique you had to use on the street was honed in a school with the help of a partner willing to practice with you.  Look him or her in the eye and thank them for being there. There are no second chances or “do over’s” with that attacker on the street. 

The eyes tell you where the attack is coming from.  The boxer has to worry about two hands.  Martial artists are concerned with four limbs and a variety of attacks.  It is important to maintain your eyes on the centerline, drawing your focus on the upper chest or collarbone.  This will give you a good scan of the entire body. Developing good peripheral vision is also important.  Practice looking out of the “corner of your eye.” This may help you avoid that roundhouse kick headed for your skull!

The eyes can “telegraph” your next move.  Don’t look at the target or you might as well tell your opponent where you’re going to hit him so he’s good and ready for you!

The eyes can trick your opponent by looking in one direction and striking at another.  “Fake” a glance at his thigh and strike at the head instead.  Bruce Lee, for example, deceived his opponent by looking him straight in the eye and dropping him to the ground with his famous foot sweep.  They never saw it coming!  

So remember, next time you’re in class working on sparring or practicing with a classmates, don’t neglect the eyes.  Applying these principles will add a new dimension to your training.

What kind of background must you have to benefit?

It doesn’t matter what you background is, Calasanz has worked and continues to work with people of all shapes, sizes, backgrounds, and experiences.  From beginners at the dawn of their athletic experience, to professional athletes, seasoned martial artists from any and all disciplines, the physically challenged, athletes of all sports transitioning to (or supplementing their training with) the martial arts, Calasanz can help everyone!

If you study Karate (soft or hard style), Kung Fu (Northern or Southern style), Tae Kwon Do, Ninjitsu, Calasanz can help you improve.  If you are into competitive contact martial arts; Muay Thai, Kickboxing, Boxing, MMA, Brazilian Jujitsu, point fighters, Calasanz can help both strikers and submission specialists sharpen their fighting skills.  If you’re a performance martial artist (wushu, kata or breaking competitor), dancer, gymnast, or acrobat, Calasanz can help make your form and style more beautiful.  If you are in law enforcement, the armed services, fire fighter, body guard, bouncer, or are just looking to defend yourself in the street, Calasanz will improve your self defense skills.  If your looking to get in great shape or you’re an athlete (basketball, football, baseball, hockey, tennis, soccer, golf, lacrosse, or body building) looking for superior conditioning, Calasanz has the formula to increase your strength, flexibility, balance, coordination, speed, body awareness, and athletic prowess.

Calasanz Martial Arts and Fitness / 800-414-9455 / 507 Westport Ave. Norwalk, CT / / /